Nowadays most Ladakhis, mainly in Leh town, understand and speak urdu/hindi or English. However, learning some ladakhi will bring you closer to the people and help you a lot, especially in villages.
Few words and their pronounciation vary accross Ladakh, however, most people will still understand the following expressions.
ju-le [dju-lay] - hello, good morning, please, goodbye
"le" is an honorific, polite particle added to the end of words, names and sentences to show respect to the listener. In a less fornal style, can be replace by "he".
Khoda hafiz - Urdu word used by Muslims to say Goodbye
("God protect you")
ot-ju(he) / ot-ju-le - Thank you
Bakhshish* - Thank you (in Kargil region / Suru valley)
ju-ju - Please (insisting)
Khamzang ina-le ? - Are you well ?
Theek ina-(le) / theek yoda ? - How are you ?
kasa(-le) / o(-le) - Yes, okay, i agree.
Man(-le) - No
Ha-go-a ? - Do you understand ?
Ha-go / Ha-ma-go - I understand / I don't understand
dik dik / dik-le (polite) - That's enough
dig-a ? - Is it enough / okay ?
chenna ! - Let's go !
ltoks-a rak - I'm hungry
tagi - bread
bato - rice
tagi yoda / duga ? - Is there some bread ?
duk / mi-ruk - there is [some] / there isn't [any]
kharji - food
cha / solja (honorific) - tea
namkin / gurgur cha - butter tea
Chi song ? - What happen ?
Chi lo ? - What "said" ? (What did you/he/she say ?)
tangmo rak - it's cold
tchu-skol khyong ! - Bring boiled water !
dul-a mi-ruk - It's not working
thore / askya (in Kargil region) - Tomorrow
ngatok / ngarmo (Kargil) - Morning
Phitok - Evening
tshan - Night
gyokhspa / dakhsa* - soon / now
Nam - When
Nam lokste yong-at-a ? - When will you come back
Nga gyokhspa lokste yong-at - I'm coming back soon
* in most cases, 'kh' is pronounced "rrh" like German "acht" or Arabic "Khaled". However, when followed by a vowel, it's sometimes pronounced 'k', like in "khyong" (bring).